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Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs

It is a big – and very important – job to plan, purchase, prepare, and serve
nourishing meals for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Child Nutrition
Programs

Date:   10/20/2006 3:43:13 PM   ( 16 y ) ... viewed 2981 times


Introduction
It is a big – and very important – job to plan, purchase, prepare, and serve
nourishing meals for the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Child Nutrition
Programs. Every day, your work helps fight hunger and improve the nutritional
health of children in America.
Whether you are serving food to a small number of children or adults or
thousands of students, you need to think carefully about each meal.
■ Will the meal meet the appropriate requirements of the various Child Nutrition
Programs?
■ How many servings will you get from a specific quantity of food?
■ What quantity of the raw product will provide the amount of ready-to-cook food
called for in a recipe?
■ How much food will you need to buy?
The Food Buying Guide for Child
Nutrition Programs is designed to help
you in two important ways:
1. It will help you or your purchasing
agent buy the right amount of food and buy it most economically whether you
use one of the food-based or the nutrient standard menu planning approaches.
2. For the food-based menu planning options, it will help you determine the
specific contribution each food makes toward the meal pattern requirements.
This is necessary to ensure that meals provide needed nourishment and meet
program requirements for reimbursement.
In addition, with yield data for more than 1,200 food items, this guide can
provide ideas for adding new foods or new forms of familiar foods to your menus.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans emphasize that a variety of fruits, vegetables,
and grains, especially whole grains, are key elements of a healthful diet. By offering
a wide variety of nourishing foods, you are giving children greater opportunity
to develop eating habits that will promote life-long good health.
I-2 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
As with the previous Food Buying Guide last revised in 1984, this new edition will
be widely used by school food service professionals. It is also appropriate for use
in the Child and Adult Care Food Program as well as the Summer Food Service
Program. Meal patterns for each of these Child Nutrition Programs are shown on
pages I-7 through I-27.
What is New
in This
Updated
Guide?
The Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs was first published in 1947.
Since then it has been updated several times to add new foods and to reflect
changes in processing technology or packaging that may affect yield.
For example, many schools now purchase ready-to-serve salads and pre-cut
vegetables. These were not widely available the last time the guide was revised in
1984.
This new guide replaces the 1984 edition. The new guide:
■ is the most comprehensive to date. It includes over five hundred new food items
or new pack sizes, each carefully tested in a food service setting using the
equipment and methods that would be used in a typical food service setting.
■ has a new look, with an updated design. The yield data tables, however, appear in
a familiar format so you can continue to use them easily.
■ is packed with helpful information. For example, a series of variations of practical
examples serves as a how-to guide for working with the yield data tables.
■ contains updated meal pattern charts and adds a chart summarizing required menu
item for the nutrient standard menu planning approach.
■ has the following appendices:
Appendix A: Recipe Analysis. This section has been added as a quick method
to see if your USDA modified or locally produced recipes will provide the
servings that you need for your planned meal.
Appendix B: Determining the Number of Servings, for Crediting Purposes,
from a Particular Food. This section shows how to calculate the credit of one
portion of a recipe using Column 6 (Additional Information).
Appendix C: The USDA Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program. This
section provides a brief description of the CN label program, what types of
foods can be CN labeled, and what a CN label looks like. It also contains yield
data for food items used primarily by industry.
Appendix D: Food Purchasing. Summaries of First Choice and Choice Plus are
included as a resource for purchasing foods.
Appendix E: Resources. Other resources related to food service, food
preparation, food safety, meal planning, and more. There is also a quick
reference guide for various Internet addresses and phone numbers.
Introduction ■ I-3
Yield information is a valuable planning tool. Use it as a guideline to purchase
sufficient food for the meals you will prepare.
Examples of yield information:
■ If you plan to include fresh, chopped tomatoes in a green salad, you will need
to know how many pounds of whole tomatoes, minus the waste, will yield the
desired amount for the recipe.
■ If you have received commodity ground beef and you plan to serve
275 portions of meatloaf which will provide 2 ounces of cooked lean meat per
portion, you will need to know how many ounces of raw ground beef to
include in the recipe to yield 275 2-ounce servings of cooked lean meat.
■ If you plan to serve a marinated black bean salad, and the recipe calls for 5
pounds of drained, canned, black beans, you need to know how many cans of
undrained beans will yield 5 pounds of drained beans, or, the number of
pounds of dry, uncooked black beans that could be used instead.
The yield information provided in this guide represents average yields based on
research conducted by USDA. The yield information given for a specific food is
meant to be a planning and production tool.
The yield information in this guide is based on careful portioning and weighing.
Measuring tools, such as a volume measure filled level to the top and an accurate
scale, were used in the research conducted by USDA.
Using these same tools you must measure or weigh portions carefully and ensure
that each serving size is appropriate for the age/grade group you are serving.
If your food service operation is consistently getting a higher or lower yield from
a product than the yield specified by the Food Buying Guide, you may want to
research and document the yield or number of portions of a specified size that the
product provides. Prior to obtaining any in-house yield data you must find out if
your State agency will allow the use of in-house yield data. If your State agency
allows the use of in-house yield data: 1) determine what your State agency
procedures are to determine the in-house yields; and 2) maintain documentation
required by the State agency.
Specific and verifiable procedures must be followed to document yield.
For example, suppose the yield listed in the Food Buying Guide for a #10 can of
diced pears is consistently lower than the yield you are getting with the brand of
diced pears you are currently purchasing. After checking with your State agency,
Yields
I-4 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
you find out that you can collect in-house yield data, that the agency requires
determining yields from at least six samples, and that the State Agency will need
to review and approve the data before it can be used.
Based on procedures set by the State Agency, your program will need to carefully
portion (using the appropriate scoop/disher or measuring spoon which is filled
level to the top of the measure) at least six (6) #10 cans, carefully counting and
documenting the number of specified portions. When the portioning and counting
are completed, you will total the number of servings from each of the 6 cans
and then divide the total by 6 to get the average number of portions per can. To
get a better estimate of yield, at least two people should do the portioning and
counting of 6 samples independently. In this example, the State agency reviewed
and accepted the in-house yield data and required documentation to be maintained
of how the yields for the diced pears were established.
Many factors affect yield, including:
■ the quality and condition of the food you buy;
■ storage conditions and handling;
■ the equipment used in preparation;
■ cooking method and time;
■ the form in which you serve the food — for example, whether the
potatoes you are serving are mashed, fried, or baked; and
■ the serving utensils and portion control methods used.
Introduction ■ I-5
For the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and the School Breakfast
Program (SBP), schools may plan meals by:
1. using one of the food-based menu planning approaches,
2. using Nutrient Standard or Assisted Nutrient Standard Menu Planning, or
3. adopting an alternate menu planning approach developed by a State agency or
by the school food authority with State agency approval. Please see
program regulations (7 CFR Parts 210 and 220), A Menu Planner
for Healthy School Meals Publication number FNS-303, or contact
your State agency for additional information about the various
menu planning approaches.
The Child and Adult Care Food Program
(CACFP) and the Summer Food Service Program
(SFSP) follow meal patterns for planning menus.
However, if the CACFP or SFSP is operated by a
school using one of the nutrient standard menu
planning approaches, that method may also be used
for these programs with State Agency approval. Please
see program regulations (7 CFR Parts 225 and 226), The Building Blocks for Fun
and Healthy Meals – A Menu Planner for CACFP Publication number FNS-305
and Sponsor Meal Preparation Handbook for the Summer Food Service Program for
Children Publication Number FNS-207 or contact your State agency for
additional information about menu planning for the CACFP and the SFSP.
Charts 1A & 1B: National School Lunch Program (NSLP)
Chart 1A shows the traditional food-based meal pattern for NSLP. Chart 1B
shows the enhanced food-based meal pattern for the NSLP.
USDA recommends, but does not require, that portions be adjusted by age/grade
group to better meet the food and nutritional needs of children according to their
ages. If portions are not adjusted, the oldest age group served must receive at least
the minimum amount for that age group, even though more food will be served
than recommended for the lower age groups.
For example, the amounts of food listed under Groups I-IV on the traditional
meal pattern for NSLP indicate minimum requirements for the age and grade
groups specified. If you do not adjust portions, you must offer the Group IV
portions to all students. Group V lists recommended amounts for older students
who may need the larger portions.
Meal Patterns
I-6 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Also when using the traditional food-based menu planning approach, it is important
to ensure that meals provide sufficient calories. The traditional meal pattern
was designed to serve as the framework for the meal. Schools are expected to add
other foods and condiments to provide taste, enhance appeal, and increase calories
and the nutritional value of the meal.
Charts 2A & 2B: School Breakfast Program (SBP)
Chart 2A shows the traditional food-based meal pattern for the SBP. Chart 2B
shows the enhanced food-based meal for the SBP.
Chart 3: Afterschool Snacks Served Under the National School
Lunch Program (NSLP)
Schools may serve reimbursable supplemental snacks to children in an eligible
afterschool snack program. Chart 3 provides the minimum requirements for
afterschool snacks.
Chart 4: Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)
For children and adults participating in the CACFP:
Chart 4A shows the meal pattern minimum requirements for breakfast;
Chart 4B shows the meal pattern minimum requirements for lunch;
Chart 4C shows the meal pattern minimum requirements for supper; and
Chart 4D shows the meal pattern minimum requirements for snacks.
Chart 5: Summer Food Service Program (SFSP)
Chart 5 shows the breakfast, lunch or supper, and snack patterns for the SFSP.
Chart 6: Minimum Required Menu Items for Nutrient Standard
Menu Planning
Chart 6 is a summary of the menu items required when using the nutrient
standard or assisted nutrient standard menu planning approaches.
TM
Introduction ■ I-7
TRADITIONAL FOOD-BASED MENU PLANNING – Meal pattern
Chart 1A SCHOOL LUNCH PATTERNS
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS GROUP IV
AGE 9 AND OLDER
GRADES 4-12
GROUP III
AGES 5-8
GRADES K-3
GROUP II
AGES 3 and 4
PRESCHOOL
GROUP I
AGES 1 and 2
PRESCHOOL
8 fl oz (1 cup) 8 fl oz (1 cup) 6 fl oz (3/4 cup) 6 fl oz (3/4 cup) Milk, fluid (as a beverage)
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
8 oz or 1 cup
1 oz = 50%
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
3/4 large egg
3/8 cup
3 Tbsp
6 oz or 3/4 cup
3/4 oz = 50%
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
3/4 large egg
3/8 cup
3 Tbsp
6 oz or 3/4 cup
3/4 oz = 50%5
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
4 oz or 1/2 cup
1/2 oz = 50%5
Meat or Meat Alternate1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (quantity of the edible portion
as served):
Lean meat, poultry, or fish
Alternate protein products3
Cheese
Egg (large)
Cooked dry beans or peas4
Peanut butter or other nut or seed butters
Yogurt, plain or flavored, unsweetened or sweetened - commercially prepared
The following may be used to meet no more than 50% of the requirement and
must be used in combination with any of the above:
Peanuts, soynuts, tree nuts, or seeds, as listed in program guidance, or an
equivalent quantity of any combination of the above meat/meat alternate
(1 oz of nuts/seeds=1 oz of cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish)5
3/4 cup 1/2 cup 1/2 cup 1/2 cup Vegetable or Fruit4, 6 Two or more servings of different vegetables, fruits,
or both
1 Must be served in the main dish or the main dish plus only one other menu item.
2 Enriched macaroni with fortified protein may be used to meet part of the meat or meat alternate requirement.
3 Alternate protein products must meet the requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 210.
4 Cooked dry beans or peas may be used as a meat alternate or as a vegetable, but not as both components in the same meal.
5 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be finely minced.
6 No more than one-half of the total requirement may be met with full-strength fruit or vegetable juice.
7 Enriched macaroni with fortified protein may be used as a meat alternate or as a grains/breads item, but not as both components in the same meal.
8 For the purposes of this chart, a week equals 5 school days.
MINIMUM QUANTITIES
Grains/Breads7 (Servings per week): Must be enriched or whole-grain or
made from enriched or whole-grain flour or meal that may include bran and/or
germ. A serving is a slice of bread or an equivalent serving of biscuits, rolls, etc.,
or 1/2 cup of cooked rice, macaroni, noodles, other pasta products, or cereal
grains.
5 per week8–minimum
of 1/2 per day
8 per week8–minimum
of 1 per day
8 per week8–minimum
of 1 per day
8 per week 8–minimum
of 1 per day
RECOMMENDED
QUANTITIES
GROUP V
AGE 12 AND OLDER
GRADES 7-12
8 fl oz (1 cup)
3 oz
3 oz
3 oz
1-1/2 large eggs
3/4 cup
6 Tbsp
12 oz or 1-1/2 cup
1-1/2 oz = 50%
3/4 cup
10 per week 8–minimum
of 1 per day
I-8 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-9
Chart 1B SCHOOL LUNCH PATTERNS
OPTION FOR
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS GRADES K-3 GRADES 7-12 GRADES K-6 PRESCHOOL AGES 1 and 2
8 fl oz (1 cup) 8 fl oz (1 cup) 8 fl oz (1 cup) 6 fl oz (3/4 cup) 6 fl oz (3/4 cup)
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
3/4 large egg
3/8 cup
3 Tbsp
6 oz or 3/4 cup
3/4 oz = 50%
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
8 oz or 1 cup
1 oz = 50%
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
8 oz or 1 cup
1 oz = 50%
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
3/4 large egg
3/8 cup
3 Tbsp
6 oz or 3/4 cup
3/4 oz = 50%5
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
4 oz or 1/2 cup
1/2 oz = 50%5
3/4 cup 1 cup 3/4 cup plus an extra
1/2 cup over a week
1/2 cup 1/2 cup Vegetable or Fruit4,6 Two or more servings of different vegetables, fruits,
or both
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
Grains/Breads7 (Servings per week): Must be enriched or whole-grain or
made from enriched or whole-grain flour or meal that may include bran and/or
germ. A serving is a slice of bread or an equivalent serving of biscuits, rolls, etc.,
or 1/2 cup of cooked rice, macaroni, noodles, other pasta products, or cereal
grains.
5 per week8–minimum
of 1/2 per day
8 per week8–minimum
of 1 per day
12 per week8–minimum
of 1 per day9
15 per week8–minimum
of 1 per day9
10 per week 8–minimum
of 1 per day9
ENHANCED FOOD-BASED MENU PLANNING — Meal Pattern
Milk, fluid (as a beverage)
Meat or Meat Alternate1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (quantity of the edible portion as served):
Lean meat, poultry, or fish
Alternate protein products3
Cheese
Egg (large)
Cooked dry beans or peas4
Peanut butter or other nut or seed butters
Yogurt, plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared
The following may be used to meet no more than 50% of the requirement and
must be used in combination with any of the above: Peanuts, soynuts, tree nuts,
or seeds, as listed in program guidance, or an equivalent quantity of any
combination of the above meat/meat alternate (1 oz of nuts/seeds = 1 oz of
cooked lean meat, poultry, or fish).5
1 Must be served in the main dish or the main dish plus only one other menu item.
2 Enriched macaroni with fortified protein may be used to meet part of the meat or meat alternate requirement.
3 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 210.
4 Cooked dry beans or peas may be used as a meat alternate or as a vegetable, but not as both components in the same meal.
5 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be finely minced.
6 No more than one-half of the total requirement may be met with full-strength fruit or vegetable juice.
7 Enriched macaroni with fortified protein may be used as a meat alternate or as a grains/breads item, but not as both components in the same meal.
8 For the purposes of this chart, a week equals 5 school days.
9 Up to one grains/breads serving per day may be a grain-based dessert.
I-10 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-11
Chart 2A SCHOOL BREAKFAST PATTERNS
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS GRADES K-12 PRESCHOOL AGES 1 and 2
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
TRADITIONAL FOOD-BASED MENU PLANNING ALTERNATIVE — Meal Pattern
Milk (Fluid) (As a beverage, on cereal, or both) 4 fl oz (1/2 cup) 6 fl oz (3/4 cup) 8 fl oz (1 cup)
1/2 cup 1/2 cup 1/4 cup Juice/Fruit/Vegetable Fruit and/or vegetable; or full-strength fruit juice or vegetable juice
1 Minimum servings for meat/meat alternate = 0.25 ounce and for grains/breads = 1/4 serving.
2 Grains/Breads must be enriched or whole-grain or made from enriched or whole-grain flour or meal that may include bran and/or germ.
3 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A 7 CFR Part 220.
4 No more than 1 ounce of nuts and/or seeds may be served in any one breakfast.
5 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be finely minced.
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
2 Tbsp
4 Tbsp
1 oz
4 oz or 1/2 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/3 cup or 1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1 Tbsp
2 Tbsp
1/2 oz5
2 oz or 1/4 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup or 1/3 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1 Tbsp
2 Tbsp
1/2 oz5
2 oz or 1/4 cup
SELECT ONE SERVING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS;
TWO FROM ONE COMPONENT; OR AN EQUIVALENT COMBINATION1:
Grains/Breads2
Whole-grain or enriched bread
Whole-grain or enriched biscuit, roll, muffin, etc.
Whole-grain, enriched, or fortified cereal
Meat or Meat Alternate3, 4, 5
Lean meat/poultry or fish
Alternate protein products3
Cheese
Egg (large)
Peanut butter or other nut or seed butters
Cooked dry beans and peas
Nuts and/or seeds (as listed in program guidance)4, 5
Yogurt, plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared
I-12 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-13
Chart 2B SCHOOL BREAKFAST PATTERNS
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS
GRADES K-12 PRESCHOOL AGES 1 and 2
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS
ENHANCED FOOD-BASED MENU PLANNING ALTERNATIVE — Meal Pattern
GRADES 7-12
REQUIRED FOR OPTION FOR
8 fl oz (1 cup) 8 fl oz (1 cup) 6 fl oz (3/4 cup) 4 fl oz (1/2 cup) Milk (Fluid) (As a beverage, on cereal, or both)
SELECT ONE SERVING FROM EACH OF THE FOLLOWING COMPONENTS;
OR TWO FROM ONE COMPONENT; OR AN EQUIVALENT COMBINATION1
Grains/Breads2
Whole-grain or enriched bread
Whole-grain or enriched biscuit, roll, muffin, etc.
Whole-grain, enriched, or fortified cereal
Meat or Meat Alternate3, 4, 5
Lean meat/poultry or fish
Alternate protein products3
Cheese
Egg (large)
Peanut butter or other nut or seed butters
Cooked dry beans and peas
Nuts and/or seeds (as listed in program guidance)4, 5
Yogurt, plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared
Juice/Fruit/Vegetable Fruit and/or vegetable; or full-strength fruit juice or vegetable juice 1/4 cup 1/2 cup 1/2 cup 1/2 cup
1 Minimum servings for meat/meat alternate = 0.25 ounce and for grains/breads = 1/4 serving.
2 Grains/Breads must be enriched or whole-grain or made from enriched or whole-grain flour or meal that may include bran and/or germ.
3 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 220.
4 No more than 1 ounce of nuts and/or seeds may be served in any one breakfast.
5 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be finely minced.
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz
- Plus an additional
serving of one of the
Grains/Breads above.
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
2 Tbsp
4 Tbsp
1 oz
4 oz or 1/2 cup
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
2 Tbsp
4 Tbsp
1 oz
4 oz or 1/2 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/3 cup or 1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1 Tbsp
2 Tbsp
1/2 oz5
2 oz or 1/4 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup or 1/3 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1 Tbsp
2 Tbsp
1/2 oz5
2 oz or 1/4 cup
I-14 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-15
Chart 3 NATIONAL SCHOOL LUNCH PROGRAM MEAL PATTERN
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS1 CHILDREN
AGES 6-121
CHILDREN
AGES 3-5
CHILDREN
AGES 1 and 2
SELECT TWO OF THE FOUR COMPONENTS FOR A REIMBURSABLE SNACK
AFTERSCHOOL SNACKS
Milk
Fluid milk
Vegetable or Fruit2
Juice2, fruit, and/or vegetable
Grains/Breads3, 4
Bread or
Cornbread or biscuit or roll or muffin or
Cold dry cereal4 or
Cooked cereal grains or
Cooked pasta or noodles
Meat/Meat Alternate5, 6, 7
Lean meat or poultry or fish5 or
Alternate protein products6 or
Cheese or
Egg (large) or
Cooked dry beans or peas or
Peanut or other nut or seed butters or
Nuts and/or seeds7 or
Yogurt8
8 fl oz (1 cup)
3/4 cup
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz4
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
1 oz
4 oz or 1/2 cup
4 fl oz (1/2 cup)
1/2 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/3 cup or 1/2 oz4
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1/8 cup
1 Tbsp
1/2 oz7
2 oz or 1/4 cup
4 fl oz (1/2 cup)
1/2 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup or 1/3 oz4
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1/8 cup
1 Tbsp
1/2 oz7
2 oz or 1/4 cup
1 Children age 12 and older may be served larger portions based on their greater food needs. They may not be served less than the minimum quantities listed
in this column.
2 Serve two or more kinds of vegetable(s) and/or fruit(s). Full-strength vegetable or fruit juice may be counted to meet not more than one-half of this
requirement.
3 Grains/Breads must be whole-grain or enriched, or made from whole-grain or enriched flour or meal that may include bran and/or germ. Cereal must be
whole-grain, enriched, or fortified.
4 Either volume (cup) or weight (oz), whichever is less.
5 A serving consists of the edible portion of cooked lean meat or poultry or fish.
6 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 210.
7 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be
finely minced.
8 Yogurt may be plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared.
I-16 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-17
Chart 4A CHILD AND ADULT CARE
FOOD PROGRAM MEAL PATTERNS
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS CHILDREN
AGES 6-121
CHILDREN
AGES 3-5
CHILDREN
AGES 1 and 2
SERVE ALL THREE COMPONENTS FOR A REIMBURSABLE BREAKFAST
BREAKFAST
ADULTS
8 fl oz (1 cup)
1/2 cup
2 slices (servings)
2 servings
1-1/2 cup or 2 oz4
1 cup
1 cup
8 fl oz (1 cup)
1/2 cup
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz4
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
6 fl oz (3/4 cup)
1/2 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/3 cup or 1/2 oz4
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
4 fl oz (1/2 cup)
1/4 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup or 1/3 oz4
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
Milk
Fluid milk
Vegetable or Fruit
Full strength juice2, fruit, and/or vegetable
Grains/Breads3
Bread or
Cornbread or biscuit or roll or muffin or
Cold dry cereal4 or
Cooked cereal grains or
Cooked pasta or noodles
1 Children age 12 and older may be served larger portions based on their greater food needs. They may not be served less than the minimum quantities listed
in this column.
2 Full strength vegetable and/or fruit juice or an equivalent quantity of any combination of vegetable(s) or fruit(s), and juice.
3 Breads and grains must be enriched or whole-grain or made from enriched or whole-grain flour or meal that may include bran and/or germ. Cereal must be
whole-grain or enriched or fortified.
4 Either volume (cup) or weight (oz), whichever is less.
I-18 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-19
Chart 4B CHILD AND ADULT CARE
FOOD PROGRAM MEAL PATTERNS
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS1 CHILDREN
AGES 6-121
CHILDREN
AGES 3-5
CHILDREN
AGES 1 and 2
SERVE ALL FOUR COMPONENTS FOR A REIMBURSABLE LUNCH
LUNCH
ADULTS
Milk
Fluid milk
Vegetable or Fruit2 Two or more servings of
vegetables and/or fruits
Juice2, fruit and/or vegetable
Grains/Breads3
Bread or
Cornbread or biscuit or roll or muffin or
Cooked cereal grains or
Cooked pasta or noodles
Meat/Meat Alternate4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Lean meat or poultry or fish4 or
Alternate protein products5
Cheese or
Egg (large) or
Cooked dry beans or peas or
Peanut or other nut or seed butters or
Nuts and/or seeds6, 7 or
Yogurt8
1 Children age 12 and older may be served larger portions based on their greater food needs. They may not be served less than the minimum quantities listed
in this column.
2 Serve two or more kinds of vegetable(s) and/or fruit(s). Full-strength vegetable or fruit juice may be counted to meet not more than one-half of this
requirement.
3 Grains/breads must be whole grain or enriched, made from whole-grain or enriched flour or meal which may include bran and/or germ. Cereal must be
whole-grain or enriched or fortified.
4 A serving consists of the edible portion of cooked lean meat or poultry or fish.
5 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 226.
6 Nuts and seeds may meet only one-half of the total meat/meat alternate serving and must be combined with another meat/meat alternate to fulfill the
lunch requirement.
7 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be
finely minced.
8 Yogurt may be plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared.
8 fl oz (1 cup)
1 cup total
2 slices (servings)
2 servings
1 cup
1 cup
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
1 oz = 50%
8 oz or 1 cup
8 fl oz (1 cup)
3/4 cup total
1 slice
1 serving
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
1 oz = 50%
8 oz or 1 cup
6 fl oz (3/4 cup)
1/2 cup total
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
3/4 large egg
3/8 cup
3 Tbsp
3/4 oz = 50%7
6 oz or 3/4 cup
4 fl oz (1/2 cup)
1/4 cup total
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
1/2 oz = 50%7
4 oz or 1/2 cup
I-20 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-21
Chart 4C CHILD AND ADULT CARE
FOOD PROGRAM MEAL PATTERNS
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS1 CHILDREN
AGES 6-121
CHILDREN
AGES 3-5
CHILDREN
AGES 1 and 2
SERVE ALL FOUR COMPONENTS FOR A REIMBURSABLE SUPPER
SUPPER
ADULTS
Milk
Fluid milk
Vegetable or Fruit2 Two or more servings of
different vegetables and or fruits
Juice2, fruit and/or vegetable
Grains/Breads3
Bread or
Cornbread or biscuit or roll or muffin or
Cooked cereal grains or
Cooked pasta or noodles
Meat/Meat Alternate4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Lean meat or poultry or fish4 or
Alternate protein products5 or
Cheese or
Egg (large) or
Cooked dry beans or peas or
Peanut or other nut or seed butters or
Nuts and/or seeds6, 7 or
Yogurt8
1 Children age 12 and older may be served larger portions based on their greater food needs. They may not be served less than the minimum quantities listed
in this column.
2 Serve two or more kinds of vegetable(s) and/or fruit(s). Full-strength vegetable or fruit juice may be counted to meet not more than one-half of this
requirement.
3 Grains/Breads must be whole-grain or enriched, or made from whole-grain or enriched flour or meal that may include bran and/or germ. Cereal must be
whole-grain or enriched or fortified.
4 A serving consists of the edible portion of cooked lean meat or poultry or fish.
5 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 226.
6 Nuts and seeds may meet only one-half of the total meat/meat alternate serving and must be combined with another meat/meat alternate to fulfill the
supper requirement.
7 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be
finely minced.
8 Yogurt may be plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared.
8 fl oz (1 cup)
1 cup total
2 slices (servings)
2 servings
1 cup
1 cup
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
1 oz = 50%
8 oz or 1 cup
8 fl oz (1 cup)
3/4 cup total
1 slice
1 serving
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
1 oz = 50%
8 oz or 1 cup
6 fl oz (3/4 cup)
1/2 cup total
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
1-1/2 oz
3/4 large egg
3/8 cup
3 Tbsp
3/4 oz = 50%7
6 oz or 3/4 cup
4 fl oz (1/2 cup)
1/4 cup total
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
1/2 oz = 50%7
4 oz or 1/2 cup
I-22 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-23
Chart 4D CHILD AND ADULT CARE
FOOD PROGRAM MEAL PATTERNS
FOOD COMPONENTS AND FOOD ITEMS1 CHILDREN
AGES 6-121
CHILDREN
AGES 3-5
CHILDREN
AGES 1 and 2
SELECT TWO OF THE FOUR COMPONENTS FOR A REIMBURSABLE SNACK
SNACKS
ADULTS
Milk
Fluid milk
Vegetable or Fruit2
Full strength juice2, fruit and/or vegetable
Grains/Breads3, 4
Bread or
Cornbread or biscuit or roll or muffin or
Cold dry cereal4 or
Cooked cereal grains or
Cooked pasta or noodles
Meat/Meat Alternate5, 6, 7, 8
Lean meat or poultry or fish5 or
Alternate protein products6 or
Cheese or
Egg (large) or
Cooked dry beans or peas or
Peanut or other nut or seed butters or
Nuts and/or seeds7 or
Yogurt8
1 Children age 12 and older may be served larger portions based on their greater food needs. They may not be served less than the minimum quantities listed
in this column.
2 Full strength vegetable and/or fruit juice or an equivalent quantity of any combination of vegetable(s), fruit(s), and juice.
3 Grains/Breads must be enriched or whole-grain or made from whole-grain or enriched flour or meal that may include bran and/or germ. Cereal must be
whole-grain or enriched or fortified.
4 Either volume (cup) or weight (oz), whichever is less.
5 A serving consists of the edible portion of cooked lean meat or poultry or fish.
6 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 226.
7 Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be
finely minced.
8 Yogurt may be plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared.
8 fl oz (1 cup)
1/2 cup
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz4
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
1 oz
4 oz or 1/2 cup
8 fl oz (1 cup)
3/4 cup
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz4
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
1 oz
4 oz or 1/2 cup
4 fl oz (1/2 cup)
1/2 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/3 cup or 1/2 oz4
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1/8 cup
1 Tbsp
1/2 oz7
2 oz or 1/4 cup
4 fl oz (1/2 cup)
1/2 cup
1/2 slice
1/2 serving
1/4 cup or 1/3 oz4
1/4 cup
1/4 cup
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 oz
1/2 large egg
1/8 cup
1 Tbsp
1/2 oz7
2 oz or 1/4 cup
I-24 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-25
Chart 5 SUMMER FOOD SERVICE PROGRAM MEAL PATTERN FOR CHILDREN
FOOD COMPONENTS
AND FOOD ITEMS
SNACKS
SERVE TWO OF THE FOUR
LUNCH OR SUPPER
SERVE ALL FOUR
BREAKFAST
SERVE ALL THREE
SELECT THE APPROPRIATE COMPONENTS FOR A REIMBURSABLE MEAL
1 For Breakfast or Snack, fluid milk shall be served as a beverage, or on cereal, or use part of it for each purpose.
2 For Lunch or Supper, fluid milk shall be used as a beverage.
3 Fruit or vegetable juice must be full-strength for Breakfast and Snacks.
4 For Lunch or Supper, serve two or more kinds of vegetable(s) and/or fruit(s). Full-strength vegetable or fruit juice may be counted to meet not more than one-half of this requirement.
5 Juice may not be served to fulfill the supplement requirement, when milk is served as the only other component.
6 Grains/Breads must be enriched or whole-grain, or made from whole-grain or enriched flour or meal that may include bran and/or germ. Cereal must be whole-grain or enriched or fortified.
7 Either volume (cup) or weight (oz), whichever is less.
8 A serving consists of the edible portion of cooked lean meat or poultry or fish.
9 Alternate protein products must meet requirements in Appendix A of 7 CFR Part 225.
10Nuts and seeds may meet no more than one-half of the total meat/meat alternate to fulfill the lunch or supper requirement.
11Nuts and seeds are generally not recommended to be served to children ages 1-3 since they present a choking hazard. If served, nuts and seeds should be finely minced.
12Yogurt may be plain or flavored, unsweetened, or sweetened – commercially prepared.
8 fl oz (1 cup)1
3/4 cup3, 5
(juice must be full-strength)
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz7
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
1 oz11
4 oz (1/2 cup)
8 fl oz (1 cup)2
3/4 cup4 total
1 slice
1 serving
N/A
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
2 oz
2 oz
2 oz
1 large egg
1/2 cup
4 Tbsp
1 oz = 50%10, 11
8 oz (1 cup)
8 fl oz (1 cup)1
1/2 cup3
(juice must be full-strength)
1 slice
1 serving
3/4 cup or 1 oz7
1/2 cup
1/2 cup
optional
1 oz
1 oz
1 oz
1/2 large egg
1/4 cup
2 Tbsp
---
4 oz (1/2 cup)
Milk1, 2
Fluid milk
Vegetable or Fruit3, 4, 5
Juice, fruit and/or vegetable
Grains/Breads6, 7
Bread or
Cornbread or biscuit or roll or Muffin or
Cold dry cereal7 or
Hot cooked cereal or
Cooked pasta or noodles or grains
Meat/Meat Alternate8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Lean meat or poultry or fish8 or
Alternate protein products9 or
Cheese or
Egg (large) or
Cooked dry beans or peas or
Peanut or other nut butters or
Nuts and/or seeds11 or
Yogurt12
I-26 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Introduction ■ I-27
Nutrient Standard Menu Planning (NSMP) Requirements
Menus planned under the NSMP approach must meet two requirements:
1) When averaged over the school week, school lunches and school breakfasts must meet the specific age- or
grade-based nutrient standards as defined in 7 CFR Parts 210.10 and 220.8; and
2) At a minimum, planned menus must contain the menu items as summarized in Chart 6 below. Additional
menu items may need to be added in order to meet nutrient standards and/or to increase variety.
Chart 6 MINIMUM REQUIRED MENU ITEMS FOR
NUTRIENT STANDARD MENU PLANNING
MINIMUM AMOUNTS
Entree
Other menu item(s) (side dishes)
Fluid milk
Menu Items Lunch Breakfast
none
2 servings
1 serving
1 serving
1 serving
1 serving
I-28 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
This section contains a variety of information and reference tools, starting with a
list of common abbreviations and symbols used.
Also included are tips on portion control and tables showing:
■ common can and jar sizes;
■ how to substitute one can size for another;
■ how to convert customary units (such as pounds and ounces) to their metric
equivalents; and
■ how to convert parts of a unit (such as 1/2 gallon or 1/4 pound) to the correct
decimal equivalent.
Table 1
List of Abbreviations and Symbols Used
AP .............. as purchased vol................ volume
EP .............. edible portion tsp ................ teaspoon
incl ............. including Tbsp ............ tablespoon
excl ............. excluding fl oz .............. fluid ounce
cyl............... cylinder c ................... cup
pkg ............. package pt ................. pint
No. ............. number qt ................. quart
approx. ....... approximately gal ................ gallon
wt ............... weight mL............... milliliter
oz ............... ounce L .................. liter
lb ................ pound # ................... number
g ................. gram vac ............... vacuum
kg ............... kilogram
To Help You
Use This Guide
Introduction ■ I-29
The following tables provide helpful information on 10 common can and jar
sizes. Table 2 lists the average total net weight or fluid measure per can and the
average volume per can. Table 3 gives information on number of cans per case and
principal products.
It is important to know:
■ Can sizes are industry terms and do not necessarily appear on the label.
■ The net weight on can or jar labels differs according to the density of the
contents. For example, a No. 10 can of sauerkraut weighs 6 lb 3 oz (2.81 kg),
while a No. 10 can of cranberry sauce weighs 7 lb 5 oz (3.32 kg).
■ No. 10 cans of the same food item may have different net weights depending
on the manufacturer.
■ Canned meats, fish, and shellfish are known and sold by the weight (not
volume) of the contents in the can.
■ The number 303 can for vegetables is no longer used by American canners.
The conversion information for the 303 can remains in the following tables
since some of these canned products may still be in storage. Be aware that the
yield data tables have been revised; the 303 can yield data have been removed
and replaced with the 300 can yield data.
Common Can
and Jar Sizes
I-30 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Table 2
Common Can and Jar Sizes
Average Net Weight or Fluid Measure and Average Volume Per Can
Can Size Average Net Weight or Average Volume per Can
Fluid Measure per Can
Customary Metric Cups Liters
No. 10 6 lb (96 oz) to 2.72 kg to 12 cups to 2.84 L to
7 lb 5 oz (117 oz) 3.31 kg 13-2/3 cups 3.24 L
No. 3 Cyl 51 oz (3 lb 3 oz) or 1.44 kg or 5-3/4 cups 1.36 L
46 fl oz (1 qt 14 fl oz) 1.36 L
No. 2-1/2 26 oz (1 lb 10 oz) to 737 g to 3-1/2 cups 0.83 L
30 oz (1 lb 14 oz) 850 g
No. 2 Cyl 24 fl oz 709 mL 3 cups 0.71 L
No. 2 20 oz (1 lb 4 oz) or 567 g or 2-1/2 cups 0.59 L
18 fl oz (1 pt 2 fl oz) 532 mL
No. 303 16 oz (1 lb) to 453 g to 2 cups 0.47 L
(old) 17 oz (1 lb 1 oz) 481 g
No. 300 14 oz to 396 g to 1-3/4 cups 0.41 L
(new) 16 oz (1 lb) 453 g
No. 2 12 oz 340 g 1-1/2 cups 0.36 L
(Vacuum)
No. 1 10-1/2 oz to 297 g to 1-1/4 cups 0.30 L
(Picnic) 12 oz 340 g
8 oz 8 oz 226 g 1 cup 0.24 L
Introduction ■ I-31
Table 3
Common Can and Jar Sizes
Cans Per Case and Principal Products
Can Size Cans per Case Principal Products
No. 10 6 cans per case Institutional size:
Fruits, vegetables, some other foods
No. 3 Cyl 12 cans per case Institutional size:
Condensed soups, some vegetables,
meat and poultry products, fruit and
vegetable juices
No. 2-1/2 24 cans per case Family size:
Fruits, some vegetables
No. 2 Cyl 24 cans per case Family size:
Juices, soups
No. 2 24 cans per case Family size:
Juices, ready-to-serve soups, some fruits
No. 303 24 or 36 cans Small cans:
(old) per case Fruits and vegetables, some meat and
poultry products, ready-to-serve soups
No. 300 24 cans per case Small cans:
(new) Some fruits and meat products
No. 2 24 cans per case Small cans:
(Vacuum) Principally vacuum-packed corn
No. 1 48 cans per case Small cans:
(Picnic) Condensed soups, some fruits, vegetables,
meat, fish
8 oz 48 or 72 cans Small cans:
per case Ready-to-serve soups, fruits, vegetables
I-32 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Dimensional Food Can Standards
Height
#10
#3 Cyl
#2.5
#2 Vac
#303
(old)
#300
(new)
#1 (Picnic)
Figure 1
Can Size Template
Lie a can on its side directly on this actual size template to help you determine what size can it is.
Introduction ■ I-33
Dimensional Food Can Standards
Diameter
#10
#3 cyl
#2.5
#2
#303
(old)
#300
(new)
#1 (Picnic)
Figure 2
Can Size Template
Position the top side of a can directly on this actual size template to help you determine what size
can it is.
I-34 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
As you plan menus and make purchasing decisions, you may sometimes want to
use a different size can than the ones listed in this guide.
For example, you might have several No. 2 cans of wax beans in inventory you
would like to use. The Food Buying Guide lists yield information for this product in
No. 2-1/2 cans. On page 2-2, you will see that for 100 servings of heated, drained
vegetable, you would need 7.8 No. 2-1/2 cans. How will you know how many No.
2 cans to use for 100 servings?
Table 4 makes substitutions easy. To use this table:
■ Read across the top to find the column that begins with the can size you
have. In the example above, you would see that No. 2 is listed in the fourth
column.
■ Read down the rows listed under “Can Size In Yield Table.” Find the can
size for which you want to make the substitution. In the example above, you
would read down the third row to find No. 2-1/2.
■ Find where the column and the row intersect and note the figure listed.
This tells you how many cans you will need to make the substitution. In the
example above, you would note that “1.5” is shown where the fourth column
and third row intersect.
For the example above, this tells you:
In place of each No. 2-1/2 can, you would need to use 1.5 No. 2 cans.
To answer how many No. 2 cans you would need for 100 servings of wax beans:
1) Multiply the number of 2-1/2 cans needed for 100 servings (7.8) times the
number of size 2 cans needed to substitute for one 2-1/2 can (1.5).
Calculation: 7.8 multiplied by 1.5 equals 11.7
Therefore, if you need 7.8 No. 2-1/2 cans for 100 servings, you would need 11.7
No. 2 cans for the same 100 servings. Keep in mind that you will have to open 12
cans.
Substituting
Can Sizes
Introduction ■ I-35
Table 4
A Guide for Substituting Cans
CAN SIZE YOU HAVE
CAN SIZE IN
YIELD TABLE No. 10 No. 3Cyl No. 2-1/2 No. 2 No. 303 No. 300
No. 10 1.0 2.1 3.7 5.3 6.5 7.4
No. 3 Cyl 0.5 1.0 1.8 2.6 3.1 3.3
No. 2-1/2 0.3 0.6 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.0
No. 2 0.2 0.4 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.5
No. 303 (old) 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
No. 300 (new) 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 1.0
The following four tables will help you convert units of weight and measurement
to their decimal equivalents or convert decimal equivalent to measurable or
weighable units.
Table 5 lists ounces and their decimal equivalents in pounds.
Table 6 lists common fractions and their number equivalent in decimal form. Use
this table as a quick reference when you need to convert a commonly used
fraction into numbers.
Table 7 lists numbers in decimal form and converts and rounds them down to the
correct fraction of a cup for crediting vegetables/fruits servings.
Table 8 shows decimal equivalents for fractions of pounds, cups, and gallons.
These can be listed in the same table because each breaks down into 16 parts. For
example, just as there are 16 ounces in a pound, there are also 16 tablespoons in a
cup, and 16 cups in a gallon.
Decimal
Equivalents
I-36 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Table 5
Decimal Weight Equivalents
Ounces Pounds Ounces Pounds
1 oz = 0.06 lb 16 oz = 1.00 lb
2 oz = 0.12 lb 32 oz = 2.00 lb
3 oz = 0.19 lb 35 oz = 2.19 lb
4 oz = 0.25 lb 48 oz = 3.00 lb
5 oz = 0.31 lb 64 oz = 4.00 lb
6 oz = 0.38 lb 71 oz = 4.44 lb
7 oz = 0.44 lb 80 oz = 5.00 lb
8 oz = 0.50 lb 96 oz = 6.00 lb
9 oz = 0.56 lb 106 oz = 6.63 lb
10 oz = 0.62 lb 112 oz = 7.00 lb
11 oz = 0.69 lb 128 oz = 8.00 lb
12 oz = 0.75 lb 141 oz = 8.82 lb
13 oz = 0.81 lb 144 oz = 9.00 lb
14 oz = 0.88 lb 160 oz = 10.00 lb
15 oz = 0.94 lb
Introduction ■ I-37
Table 6
Decimal Equivalents of Commonly Used Fractions
1/8 = 0.125 1/3 = 0.333 2/3 = 0.666
1/4 = 0.250 1/2 = 0.500 3/4 = 0.750
3/8 = 0.375 5/8 = 0.625 7/8 = 0.875
Table 7
Converting Decimal Equivalents to the Nearest Portion of a Cup
for Fruits and Vegetables
If decimal equivalent is: the recipe contributes:
0.125 - .249 1/8 cup
.250 - .374 1/4 cup
.375 - .499 3/8 cup
.500 - .624 1/2 cup
.625 - .749 5/8 cup
.750 - .874 3/4 cup
.875 - .999 7/8 cup
1.000 - 1.124 1 cup
Use Table 7 to assist in rounding the decimal equivalent of a vegetables/fruits
serving to the correct creditable volume towards the vegetables/fruits meal pattern
component. The decimal equivalent is not fluid ounces but the fraction of a cup as
determined by crediting calculations.
For example, a recipe analysis calculation determined that one portion of a recipe
provides 0.68 cups of vegetables/fruits. Based on Table 7, you can count 5/8 cup
vegetable towards the vegetables/fruits meal pattern component since 0.68 is
between 0.625 and 0.749. Keep in mind that two or more servings of different
vegetables and/or fruits must be served to meet the vegetable/fruit requirement at
lunch and/or supper.
I-38 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
EXAMPLES:
Cups to Gallons: You want to convert 10-1/2 cups to the equal volume
amount of gallons in decimal form.
1. Find the whole number unit in the left-hand column.
For this example, the whole number is “10”. Find “10”
in the Number of Units column on the left of the table.
2. Follow this line across the table towards the right to the column headed
“+1/2 unit.” Read the decimal number.
Going right from the number “10” and stopping under the heading
“+1/2 unit,” the decimal number reads 0.66.
ANSWER: 10-1/2 cups is equal to 0.66 gallons.
Gallons to Cups: Your recipe calls for 0.53 gallons of an ingredient. You
want to know the equal volume amount in cups.
1. Find .53 in the body of the table under the “fraction or part of the unit”
columns.
For this example, .53 can be found under the “+1/2 unit” 9 rows down.
2. Follow this line across the table towards the left. Read the number in the
“Number of Units” column.
The Number of Units corresponding to .53
(which is under the “+1/2 unit” column) reads “8.”
3. Combine the whole unit number from the “Number of Units” column
with the fraction listed in the “Fraction or part of the unit” column
corresponding to the .53 number.
The whole number = 8
The fraction of a number = +1/2
Combining these numbers = 8-1/2
ANSWER: 0.53 gallons is equal to 8-1/2 cups.
Using Table 8
to Calculate
Fractions of a
Unit
Introduction ■ I-39
Table 8
Decimal Equivalents for Fractions of a Unit
Whole units are on the left. The fraction or part of the unit is to the right.
.
If the whole units are: the decimal equivalents are part of:
ounces ............................................. 1 pound
tablespoons ..................................... 1 cup
cups ................................................. 1 gallon
FRACTION OR PART OF THE UNIT
NUMBER + 1/4 + 1/3 + 1/2 + 2/3 + 3/4
OF UNITS of unit of unit of unit of unit of unit
0 ------ 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
1 0.06 .08 .08 .09 .10 .11
2 .12 .14 .15 .16 .17 .17
3 .19 .20 .21 .22 .23 .23
4 .25 .27 .27 .28 .29 .30
5 .31 .33 .33 .34 .35 .36
6 .38 .39 .40 .41 .42 .42
7 .44 .45 .46 .47 .48 .48
8 .50 .52 .52 .53 .54 .55
9 .56 .58 .58 .59 .60 .61
10 .62 .64 .65 .66 .67 .67
11 .69 .70 .71 .72 .73 .73
12 .75 .77 .77 .78 .79 .80
13 .81 .83 .83 .84 .85 .86
14 .88 .89 .90 .91 .92 .92
15 .94 .95 .96 .97 .98 .98
16 1.00 1.02 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05
I-40 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Metric quantities are increasingly used for food processing, packaging, and
specification writing. The following four tables will help you become familiar
with the relationship between metric units (Tables 9, 10 and 11) and customary
units (Table 12).
Table 9 is a guide to metric conversions showing, for example, how to change
ounces to grams by multiplying by 28.35. Table 10 shows metric equivalents by
weight. Table 11 shows metric equivalents by volume. Table 12 shows customary
units for volume.
Note: For Tables 11 and 12, keep in mind that volume is measured in fluid
ounces and liters.
Metric
Equivalents
Table 9
A Guide to Metric Conversions
To change To Multiply by
ounces (oz) grams (g) 28.35
pounds (lb) grams (g) 453.6
pounds (lb) kilograms (kg) 0.4536
teaspoons (tsp) milliliters (mL) 4.93
tablespoons (Tbsp) milliliters (mL) 14.79
fluid ounces (fl oz) milliliters (mL) 29.57
cups (c) liters (L) 0.236
pints (pt) liters (L) 0.473
quarts (qt) liters (L) 0.946
gallons (gal) liters (L) 3.785
Introduction ■ I-41
Table 10
Metric Equivalents by Weight
Customary Unit (fluid ounces) Metric Unit
(avoirdupois)
Ounces (oz) Grams (g)
1 oz ................................................ 28.35 g
4 oz ................................................ 113.4 g
8 oz ................................................ 226.8 g
16 oz .............................................. 453.6g
Pounds (lb) Grams (g)
1 lb ................................................. 453.6 g
2 lb ................................................. 907.2 g
Pounds (lb) Kilograms (kg)
2.2 lb .............................................. 1 kg (1000 g)
Table 11
Metric Equivalents by Volume
Customary Unit Metric Unit
(fluid ounces)
1 cup (8 fl oz) .................................. 236.59 milliliters (mL)
1 quart (32 fl oz) .............................. 946.36 milliliters (mL)
1.5 quarts (48 fl oz) .......................... 1.42 liter (L)
33.818 fl oz ..................................... 1.0 liter (L)
I-42 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Table 12
A Guide to Volume Equivalents for Liquids
1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons = 0.5 fluid ounces
1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons = 1 fluid ounce
1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons = 2 fluid ounces
1/3 cup = 5-1/3 tablespoons = 2.65 fluid ounces
3/8 cup = 6 tablespoons = 3 fluid ounces
1/2 cup = 8 tablespoons = 4 fluid ounces
5/8 cup = 10 tablespoons = 5 fluid ounces
2/3 cup = 10-2/3 tablespoons = 5.3 fluid ounces
3/4 cup = 12 tablespoons = 6 fluid ounces
7/8 cup = 14 tablespoons = 7 fluid ounces
1 cup = 16 tablespoons = 8 fluid ounces
1/2 pint = 1 cup = 8 fluid ounces
1 pint = 2 cups = 16 fluid ounces
1 quart = 2 pints = 32 fluid ounces
1 gallon = 4 quarts = 128 fluid ounces
1 peck = 8 quarts (dry)
1 bushel = 4 pecks
Introduction ■ I-43
Careful portioning is an important part of any food service operation. It helps to
ensure that each serving will be the appropriate size and that a recipe will produce
the expected yield (see page I-3 for definitions of yield).
Scoops or dishers, ladles, and measuring-serving spoons of standard sizes are
fairly dependable measures for portioning by volume and serving food quickly.
Below is portion information on each. Remember, whichever measuring utensil
you choose, it must be filled level with the top to maintain equal portioning for
each measure.
■ Scoops, Dishers, or Dippers
Scoops (sometimes called dishers or dippers) are useful for portioning
specific volumes of foods such as drop cookies, muffins,
meat patties, and some vegetables and salads.
The number on the scoop tells you how many scoopfuls
make 1 quart (946 milliliters). The higher the number
the smaller the scoop. For example, a Number 24 scoop is
smaller than a Number 6 scoop, because it takes more scoopfuls to
make 1 quart.
Table 13 (below) shows the approximate measure of each scoop or disher in cups,
tablespoons, and teaspoons. (Remember, the same volume of different foods will
not all weigh the same. If you want to measure by weight, use a scale.)
Measures
for Portion
Control
Table 13
Sizes and Capacities of Scoops (Dishers)
Number On Scoop (Disher) Level Measure
6 2/3 cup
8 1/2 cup
10 3/8 cup
12 1/3 cup
16 1/4 cup
20 3-1/3 tablespoons
24 2-2/3 tablespoons
30 2 tablespoons
40 1-2/3 tablespoons
50 3-3/4 teaspoons
60 3-1/4 teaspoons
70 2-3/4 teaspoons
100 2 teaspoons
I-44 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
■ Ladles
Table 14 shows the approximate measure for the six ladle sizes most frequently
used in serving school lunches.
Ladles are useful for serving soups, stews, creamed dishes, sauces, gravies, and
other similar liquid products.
The higher the number on a ladle, the larger its size. For example, a ladle marked
“2 ounce” is twice as large as a ladle marked “1 ounce.”
Ladles are not labeled “fluid ounce,” although this would be more accurate since
they measure volume, not weight.
Table 14
Sizes and Capacities of Ladles
Number Approximate
On Ladle Measure
1 ounce 1/8 cup
2 ounce 1/4 cup
4 ounce 1/2 cup
6 ounce 3/4 cup
8 ounce 1 cup
12 ounce 1-1/2 cups
Introduction ■ I-45
■ Measuring-Serving Spoons
Measuring-serving spoons are volume-standardized serving spoons identified for
a specific volume measure. They are similar to a ladle, scoop, disher, or dipper in
that they can be used to measure specific volumes of food but they are shaped like
a serving spoon (solid or perforated.)
As with ladles, they are labeled in ounces but not in fluid ounces which would be
more accurate since they measure volume, not weight.
Table 15
Sizes and Capacities of Measuring-Serving Spoons
Size of Measuring/ Approximate
Serving Spoon Measure
2 oz 1/4 cup
3 oz 3/8 cup
4 oz 1/2 cup
6 oz 3/4 cup
8 oz 1 cup
■ Serving spoons
Serving spoons (solid or perforated) may be used instead of scoops for variation
in portion shapes. However, it is more difficult to ensure correct
portioning. Since serving spoons are not standardized measuring
devices, they are not identified and labeled by number.
When using serving spoons, some extra steps
are needed to ensure accurate portioning.
Before using a particular serving spoon for
portioning, 1) measure or weigh the quantity
of food the spoon holds, and 2) determine how
full to fill the serving spoon. Then determine how
many spoonfuls will be needed for the required serving size.
I-46 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
On the following pages, you will find answers to the following questions, along
with some helpful examples.
■ How are the foods in this guide listed and grouped?
■ What information do the yield data tables provide?
■ How can you use the yield data?
How are the foods in this guide listed and grouped?
The foods in this guide are listed as individual food items. The foods are arranged
alphabetically within the appropriate food component from the Child Nutrition
Meal Patterns. (These patterns are shown in Charts 1 through 6, pages I-7 through
I-27.)
For example, if you were looking for information:
■ on beef, you would look in Section 1: Meats and Meat Alternates;
■ on sweet potatoes, in Section 2: Vegetables and Fruits;
■ on cereals, in Section 3: Grains/Breads;
■ on milk, in Section 4: Milk;
■ on hominy, in Section 5: Other Foods.
The foods in Section 5: Other Foods do not meet the requirement for any
component in the meal patterns. They are foods frequently used as additional
foods, condiments or seasonings to increase menu appeal, improve acceptability,
and provide additional calories and nutrients to help meet children’s
nutritional needs. The Other Foods section is provided to assist you in
purchasing these types of foods.
If you are not sure under which component a food is listed, the complete index at
the end of the guide will direct you to the correct page.
What information do the yield tables provide?
Using a six-column format, the yield data tables provide the following information:
1. Food As Purchased, AP
2. Purchase Unit
3. Servings per Purchase Unit, EP (Edible Portion)
4. Serving Size per Meal Contribution
5. Purchase Units for 100 Servings
6. Additional Information
Explanation of
Food Buying
Guide
Introduction ■ I-47
FOOD BUYING GUIDE
Additional
Information
Food As
Purchased, AP
Purchase
Unit
Serving Size per
Meal Contribution
Purchase
Units for
100
Servings
1 2 3 4 5 6
Additional details on each of these columns include:
Column 1 - Food As Purchased, AP: tells you the name of the food item and the
form(s) in which it is purchased. Individual foods are arranged in alphabetical
order by type of food. For instance, ham is listed under Pork, mild cured. Within
each type, foods are listed according to the forms in which they appear in the
market – fresh, canned, frozen, or dehydrated.
Where appropriate, Column 1 also includes a detailed description of the form in
which items are purchased. For example, one listing for canned, boned chicken,
reads: Chicken, canned: Boned poultry with broth. The listing for fresh beets reads:
Beets, fresh: Without tops.
Column 2 - Purchase Unit: tells you the basic unit of purchase for the food. For
most foods, the guide lists “Pound” as the purchase unit.
For some processed foods, the guide lists an institutional pack and, in many cases,
a smaller pack, along with the net weight of the pack’s contents. For example, the
listing for canned asparagus cuts and tips, includes information on two can sizes:
No. 10 can (103 oz) and No. 300 can (14-1/2 oz).
You can use data on the 1-pound unit of purchase, together with Table 2
Common Can and Jar Sizes, to determine the number of servings for any size
purchase unit available in the market. (Table 2 is on page I-30.)
Column 3 - Servings per Purchase Unit, EP (Edible Portion): shows the number
of servings of a given size (found in Column 4) from each purchase unit
(found in Column 2). It is based on average yields from good quality foods prepared
in ways that result in a minimum of waste.
For example, the purchase unit for fresh cranberries is listed as 1 pound. Column
3 indicates 15.6 servings per purchase unit if 1/4 cup raw, chopped fruit (Column
4) is served. This tells us we can expect to obtain 15.6 1/4-cup servings from 1
pound of good quality fresh cranberries.
Where applicable, numbers have been carried to one decimal, such as 15.6 in this
example, because fractions become significant when figuring large numbers of
servings. (It is for this reason, and not because the figures represent this degree of
accuracy, that they have been reported to the nearest 0.01 of a serving for less
than 10 servings per purchase unit.)
Servings
per
Purchase
Unit, EP
I-48 ■ Food Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs Revised November 2001
Numbers reported in this column have sometimes been rounded down in order to
help ensure enough food for the desired number of servings. In other words,
15.65 became 15.6 instead of 15.7 so that more, rather than less, food will be
purchased.
Column 4 - Serving Size per Meal Contribution: describes a serving by weight,
measure, or number of pieces or slices. Sometimes both measure and weight are
given, or the measure and number of pieces or slices.
Items such as a piece of cooked chicken are given an approximate serving size in
measure, with weight in parentheses. For example, for 3.7 oz raw chicken
drumsticks, Column 4 reads: 1 drumstick (about 1.8 oz cooked chicken with
skin).
For foods specified in the meal patterns, the serving size given in this column can
be credited toward meeting the meal pattern requirements. For many fruits and
vegetables, both pieces and 1/4-cup servings are included.
Column 5 - Purchase Units for 100 Servings: shows the number of purchase
units you need for 100 servings. This number was calculated using the purchase
unit listed in Column 2 and the serving size (by weight) listed in Column 4.
Numbers in Column 5 have been rounded up to help ensure enough food is
available for one hundred servings.
Column 6 - Additional Information: provides other information to help you
calculate the amount of food you need to purchase and/or prepare.
For many food items, this column shows the quantity of ready-to-cook or
cooked food you will get from a pound of food as purchased. For instance, it tells
you 1 pound of fresh, whole, 125-138 count apples will yield 0.78 pounds of raw,
cored, peeled, ready-to-cook or -serve apples.
For many processed foods, this column also gives the weight or number of cups of
drained vegetable or fruit from various can sizes. For example, for carrots, canned,
sliced, No. 10 can, Column 6 tells you that one No. 10 size can provides about
9-1/4 cups of heated, drained sliced carrots.
The data in the yield tables can help you in a variety of ways as you plan menus,
make purchasing decisions, and check to make sure meals will meet Child Nutrition
Program requirements.
On the following pages is an easy-to-follow guide. Through a variety of practical
examples, it shows you how to:
■ Determine number of purchase units needed to obtain the desired number of
servings of a particular food.
How can you
use the Yield
Data?
Introduction ■ I-49
■ Adjust portion sizes and calculate servings to meet the basic minimum
requirements.
■ Calculate the quantity of food to buy to obtain the correct amount of readyto-
cook food for a recipe.
■ Determine correct yields for foods purchased prepared and ready-to-cook
or -use. This is especially useful for fresh fruits and vegetables.
■ Make cost comparisons.
Calculating how much food you need for a given number of servings
The methods and examples on the following pages illustrate how you might use
the yield data tables for a particular purpose.
■ Foods are most often purchased in case lots. Keep in mind that the purchase
amount may differ from the calculated amount to prepare a menu item.
■ Always round up when calculating how much food to buy.
■ Always round down when calculating the creditable component towards meeting
a meal pattern requirement.
To calculate how much of any food to purchase you should begin by asking yourself
the following questions:
■ How many servings will I need?
■ Will different serving sizes be used for various age/grade groupings?
■ What is my planned serving size for this food?
■ In what form will I purchase this food?
■ What serving size is listed in Column 4?
■ Is the listed serving size the same as my planned serving size?
■ How many purchase units of the food will I need to buy?
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