Candida (Yeast/Fungi), Sugar, and Prebiotics (FOS, GOS, Inulin)
(from Wikipedia, other sources as identified by the links that precede the information.)
Many, including myself, are confused by all the “talk” about Sugar
–what to avoid, what to take? So I did this research report to find some answers for myself and to share. This report is by no means complete with regard to the subjects. But it has made me feel more confident about taking inulin, FOS, and arabinogalactan as prebiotics. The yeast ferment the simple sugars, while the bacteria feed on the more complex molecules that are chains of ‘simple sugar’ units.
Outline (more details below, report is on mostly about the 6-carbon sugars; 5-carbon sugars exist.)
I Candida albicans ferments glucose, maltose, sucrose; does not ferment lactose.
II Carbohydrates: classified by number of ‘sugar’ units i.e. one, two, or more than 2
A. Monosaccharides: 6 carbon sugars: a) glucose, b) fructose, c) galactose
B. Disaccharides: a) sucrose, b) maltose, c) lactose, and d) cellobiose.
D. Polysaccharides are long carbohydrate molecules
I) Candida is a genus of yeasts. Many species are harmless commensals or endosymbionts of animal hosts including humans, but other species, or harmless species in the wrong location, can cause disease. Candida albicans can cause infections (candidiasis or thrush) in humans. C. albicans ferments glucose and maltose to acid and gas, sucrose to acid, and does not ferment lactose, which help to distinguish it from other Candida species. Candida species can be given more than one name, sometimes to distinguish between the yeast (non-pathogenic) and the fungal forms (pathogenic) which may develop hyphae.
Previous comparative analysis of eight Candida genomes led to the identification of gene families that are highly represented in strongly pathogenic species (such as C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis), compared to weak pathogens such as C. lusitaniae and C. guilliermondii, and very rare or non-pathogenic species such as D.hansenii
Antimycotic effect of the essential oil of Aloysia triphylla against Candida species obtained from human pathologies.
A. triphylla Essential Oil showed antifungal activity against all yeast: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. guillermondii, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis which were resistant to fluconazol [Diflucan] (150 mg/mL).
Candida arabinofermentans PYCC 5603T and Pichia guilliermondii PYCC 3012 were shown to grow well on L-arabinose.
***Note: Arabinose is a 5-carbon Sugar
and is considered a metabolite of yeast fermenters of 6-carbon sugars. Genova’s Organic Acids Test considers high levels of arabinose to be an indicator of overgrowth of Candida. MetaMetrix’s Organic Acids test considers that a high level of the ‘sugar-alcohol’ named D-arabinitol is an indicator for Candida overgrowth.
The cell wall is essential to nearly every aspect of the biology and pathogenicity of Candida albicans. Although it was initially considered an almost inert cellular structure that protected the protoplast against osmotic offense, more recent studies have demonstrated that it is a dynamic organelle. The major components of the cell wall are glucan and chitin, which are associated with structural rigidity, and mannoproteins.
II) The carbohydrates (saccharides) are divided into four groupings: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. In general, the monosaccharides and disaccharides are commonly referred to as sugars.
IIA) Monosaccharides are simple sugars with one Sugar
unit: glucose, fructose, galactose are examples of 6 carbon sugars. There are 5-carbon sugars, also.
***Arabinose is a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group which are fermented by Candida arabinofermentans, and Candida guillermondii. So the Organic Acids tests could return a “false negative, which is what happened to me when in 2005, a physician ordered both the Genova Comprehensive Digestive Stool Analysis and Organic Acids tests.
IIAa) Glucose, also known as D-glucose or dextrose is one of the main products of photosynthesis. "Glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar. Glucose is used as an energy source in most organisms, from bacteria to humans. Use of glucose may be by either aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, or fermentation. Glucose is the human body's key source of energy, through aerobic (oxygen) respiration. Glucose is a chain molecule, not cyclic.
IIAb) Fructose is an isomer of glucose, i.e. both have the same molecular formula but they differ structurally. Fructose is a chain molecule. Fructose may be anaerobically (without oxygen) fermented by yeast or bacteria. Yeast enzymes convert glucose, or fructose to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
IIAc) Galactose is a C-4 epimer of glucose. Galactose exists in both open-chain and cyclic form.
IIB) Disaccharides examples are sucrose, maltose, lactose, and cellobiose.
IIBa) Sucrose is known as table sugar and sometimes called saccharose. The molecule is composed of glucose and fructose that are linked via a glycosidic linkage. This linkage inhibits further bonding to other saccharide units. Acidity converts sucrose to glucose and fructose during digestion.
IIBb) Maltose is formed from two units of glucose joined with an alpha-(1→4)bond. Maltose can be broken down into two glucose molecules by hydrolysis. In living organisms, the enzyme maltase can achieve this very rapidly.
IIBc) Lactose is found most notably in milk and is formed from galactose and glucose. Lactose is hydrolysed to glucose and galactose, isomerised in alkaline solution to lactulose, and catalytically hydrogenated to the corresponding polyhydric alcohol, lactitol.
IIBd) Cellobiose consists of two glucose molecules linked by a beta-(1→4) bond. It can be hydrolyzed to glucose enzymatically or with acid. It can be obtained by enzymatic or acidic hydrolysis of cellulose and cellulose rich materials such as cotton, jute, or paper.
IIC) An Oligosaccharide (from the Greek oligos, a few, and sacchar, sugar) is a saccharide polymer containing typically 2-10 monosaccharides. Some examples are fructo-oligosaccharide, galactooligosaccharide, and manooligosaccharide.
IICa) Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are found in many vegetables, consist of short chains of fructose molecules. Fructooligosaccharides resist hydrolysis by salivary and intestinal digestive enzymes. In the colon they are fermented by anaerobic bacteria.
IICb) Galactooligosaccharides (GOS), which also occur naturally, consist of short chains of galactose molecules. These compounds can be only partially digested by humans.
Arabinogalactan consists of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. Two classes of arabinogalactans are found in nature: plant arabinogalactan and microbial arabinogalactan. In plants, it is a major constituent of many gums, including gum arabic and gum gutti. It is often found attached to proteins, and the resulting arabinogalactan protein (AGP) functions as a signaling molecule between cells and a glue to seal wounds of plants.
IICc)Mannan Oligosaccharides (MOS) are widely used animal feed to improve gastrointestinal health, energy levels and performance. They are normally obtained from the yeast cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They are not fermentable.
IID) Polysaccharides are long carbohydrate molecules, of repeated monomer units joined together by glycosidic bonds. They range in structure from linear to highly branched. Polysaccharides are often quite heterogeneous, containing slight modifications of the repeating unit. Considering that the repeating units in the polymer backbone are often six-carbon monosaccharides, the general formula can also be represented as (C6H10O5)n where 40≤n≤3000.
Examples include storage polysaccharides such as inulin, starch and glycogen, and structural polysaccharides such as cellulose and chitin.
IIDa) Inulins are produced by many types of plants. They belong to a class of fibers known as fructans. Inulin is used by some plants as a means of storing energy. Most plants that synthesize and store inulin do not store starch.
Inulins are polymers composed mainly of fructose units, and typically have a terminal glucose. In general, plant inulins contain between 20 and several thousand fructose units. Smaller compounds are called fructooligosaccharides, the simplest being 1-kestose, which has 2 fructose units and 1 glucose unit.
IIDb) Starch and cellulose are derived from the dehydration of D-glucose, i.e. d-glucose units bond together and expell a water molecule. Starch or amylum is a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units.
IIDc) Chitin is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world.
In Candida albicans, the major components of the cell wall are glucan and chitin, which are associated with structural rigidity, and mannoproteins.