i'm going to give here some links and to mantion some sentences in them which i think are connected to the problem. .(this is all relaying on the assumming that what scientist discovered till today about those topics is correct)
''Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms that ensure the fidelity of cell division in eukaryotic cells. These checkpoints verify whether the processes at each phase of the cell cycle have been accurately completed before progression into the next phase. Multiple checkpoints have been identified, though some of them are less understood than others.
An important function of many checkpoints is to assess DNA damage, which is detected by sensor mechanisms. When damage is found, the checkpoint uses a signal mechanism either to stall the cell cycle until repairs are made or, if repairs cannot be made, to target the cell for destruction via apoptosis (effector mechanism)
''Apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death
'' It is now thought that in a developmental context cells are induced to positively commit suicide whilst in a homeostatic context the absence of certain survival factors may provide the impetus for suicide
''Programmed cell-death (or PCD) is death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program. PCD is carried out in a regulated process, which usually confers advantage during an organism's life-cycle.
''PCD serves fundamental functions during both plant and metazoa (multicellular animals) tissue development.
Macroautophagy, often referred to as autophagy, is a catabolic process that results in the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal protein aggregates, and excess or damaged organelles.
Autophagy is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but has also been associated with physiological as well as pathological processes such as development, differentiation, neurodegenerative diseases, Stress (physiology), Infection and cancer.
Autophagy and apoptosis are connected both positively and negatively, and extensive crosstalk exists between the two. During nutrient deficiency, autophagy functions as a pro-survival mechanism, however, excessive autophagy may lead to cell death, a process morphologically distinct from apoptosis.
''An atrophic factor is a force that causes a cell to die. Only natural forces on the cell are considered to be atrophic factors, whereas, for example, agents of mechanical or chemical abuse or lysis of the cell are considered not to be atrophic factors.[by whom?] Common types of atrophic factors are:
2.Loss of innervation
3.Diminished blood supply
5.Loss of endocrine stimulation