Here is a study where workers in the borax mines are checked for consequenses of inhaling the borax dust equal to ingesting around 30 mg boron daily. There seem to be no adverse effect or accumulatio at this level (0,38 mg pr kilo x 80 kilo) It is still a mystery for me why it works so well with iodine in the cases I have tried it on;
Could it be so simple that it antidote fluoride
or that it kills mycobacterias /fungus so effectively and we are simply loaded
or that boron is so important for the magnesium/calcium balance
or are we simply deficient of boron
Why does it bring a shine to my hair, the cats coat, the leaves of the flowers
+ reduse joint pain + have a positive effect on libido+affect fertility of humans and plants;positively when fit doses, negatively if too high doses.
Why are the positive results of surveys covered over by telling us how toxic it is ; or refer to the survey where they used toxic doses
Why have we forgotten that in the old days people licked their finger after dipping it in borax to rid themselves of arthritis
This study examined the relationship between work exposure to borax dust and blood- and urine-boron levels to determine whether biologic monitoring would be possible, and to compare daily intake levels in workers exposed to boron to those reported from toxicologic studies in experimental animals. A related objective of this study was the evaluation of methods for measuring dust exposure.
Boron is present in inorganic borates such as borax and boric acid that are used widely in industry and commerce. It is also an essential element for healthy plant growth and consequently is present in the daily diet. Boric acid has been shown to be readily absorbed from the human gastro-intestinal tract (1). It is likely that the other water-soluble inorganic borates provide boron in a form that is readily absorbed through mucosal membranes. Its presence in the body is most likely in the form of a salt or acid, as indicated in William G. Woods' presentation in the symposium, "Introduction to the Element and Its Compounds."
Figure 4. Urine-boron levels (µg/mg creatinine) by day of week and exposure category.
The postshift blood- and urine-boron concentrations did not increase across the days of the work week, indicating that at the levels of exposure experienced by these workers (up to a mean of 27.9 mg boron/day or 0.38 mg boron/kg/day) there was no evidence of boron accumulation. Our observations that progressive accumulation does not occur are consistent with the experimental work at much higher doses in which animals that were fed diets containing up to 1575-ppm boron (67.9 mg boron/kg/day) did not demonstrate progressive increases in tissue levels once a plateau had been reached following the first day of dosing (7).
The relationship between the workers' boron exposure and boron intake in animal chronic feeding studies can be looked at by comparing animals at the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) with the high-exposure category workers. Because boron's effects on fertility and fetal development appear to occur at lower dose levels than other toxic effects, the comparison was made with animal studies of reproductive effects.
The findings of this study can be summarized: a linear relationship described by IOM = 0.14 + 1.76(TD) exists between the two dust samplers used under the concentration and particle size distribution conditions of this study. The IOM sampler results are measurably better for predicting boron absorption as indicated by blood- and urine-boron levels than are results based on the total dust sampler, as indicated by the r2 values. Equations for prediction of blood- and urine-boron concentrations are:
Borax mean air exposures of 17.98 mg/m3 measured for the high-exposure workers together with dietary boron resulted in an estimated absorption of 0.38 mg boron/kg/day. At this level there was no progressive accumulation across the work week.
Low frequency of infertility among workers in a borate processing facility
Bekir Sitki Şayli1
Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey
Received: 22 April 2002 Revised: 5 July 2002 Accepted: 18 August 2002
Abstract In order to rule out the possibility of omitting some individuals in the study at field visits described in previous articles, either because of the reluctance of the subject or because of his appointment elsewhere, fertility and infertility states of borate workers of the Borax and Acid Plants in Bandirma, Balikesir are given. Balikesir is one of the four provinces with large borate deposits of Turkey, and Bandirma is 1 of its 19 districts. This county is relatively far away from borate deposits, and drinking water piped out through the springs has a boron amount between 0.10 and 0.82 ppm B. That the participants are occupationally exposed to the mineral in essence is therefore conceivable. At the first phase of the investigation, 191 workers were interviewed, as detailed previously. Among these, there were six infertiles of the primary type with a rate 3.1%. Boron-unrelated infertile couples among sibs were found to be 2.6–3.6%, and 3.2% for three-generation marriages—none being higher than those revealed in different sets of controls. In the second stage of work, computerized files of all workers of the facility and all employees of the general management sharing the same location were checked without an interview. Twenty-four subjects (3.4%) out of 712 workers were childless versus 2.7% among 108 employees, and 2.2% among 91 workers of a distantly located sulfuric acid plant of the same complex. The differences were not significant, and these recent findings support the conclusion already reached almost unambiguously that boron exposure at the present levels does not interfere with human reproduction.
Index Entries Turkey - boron - borates - occupational exposure - borate workers - fertility and infertility
Boric acid and borax are considered to be completely absorbed by the oral route of exposure. Absorption through intact skin is considered negligible, although absorption can occur through denuded or irritated skin. Boron levels in the body do not persist upon cessation of exposure (Moore, 1997).
Boron in foods and the compounds sodium borate and boric acid are rapidly absorbed and excreted largely in the urine. Absorption appears to be virtually complete (95 % in humans and rats), and boron appears rapidly in the blood and body tissues of several mammalian species following ingestion (EVM, 2002).A number of studies in man shows that the entire ingested dose is absorbed systematically and excreted almost exclusively in the urine with a short half – life of about 20 hours(Culver et al., 1996).
The mean amount of boron in the 24 –h urine samples was calculate from mean urine boron concentration and mean 24 – h volume 12.6 mgB/day (8.3 mgB/l) for 42 volunteers randomly selected from the study region. Boron, taken through food and water, is absorbed rapidly from the gastrointestinal tract and it is eliminated very rapidly(Çöl & Çöl, 2003).
Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 µg/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 µg/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform (Culver et al., 1994)
The level at which adverse effects of anorexia, indigestion, and exfoliative dermatitis will be seen with long – term intake is 5.0 mgB/kg/day. Although chronic absorption data at these levels is not available in the literature for infants, their responses at very high doses are similar enough to adult responses that it is reasonable to assume that the infant is not more sensitive than human adult to the effects of boron. This appears to be true also for acute exposure effects. Non – systemic, direct effects of boron exposure are minor. Respiratory exposure in industry has been shown not to cause chronic effects, and skin exposure does not cause irritant or sensitizing contact dermatitis(Culver, 1996).
The relation of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function, and abnormalities of chest radiographs to estimated exposures of borax dust has been investigated in a cross sectional study of 629 actively employed borax workers. 93% of the eligible workers participated in the study and exposures ranged from 1.1 mg/m3 to 14.6 mg/m3. Symptoms of acute respiratory irritation such as dryness of the mouth, nose, or throat, dry cough, nose bleeds, sore throat, productive cough, shortness of breath, and chest tightness were related to exposures of 4.0 mg/m3 or more, and were infrequent at exposures of 1.1 mg/m3. Symptoms of persistent respiratory irritation meeting the definition of chronic simple benefits were related to exposure among non-smokers. Radiographic abnormalities were uncommonand were not related to dust exposure(Garabrant, 1984).
Hu et al. (1992) studied on acute irritant effects of airborne sodium borate dusts on industrial workers. The investigation was carried out in a large borax mining and refining plant. Results from this study show that current smokers tended to be less sensitive to the exposure to airborne sodium borate dust.
A study of workers exposed occupationally to sodium borates up to levels of 14 mg sodium borates/m3 (the nuisance dust level is 10 mg/m3) indicated no significant respiratory effects (i.e., nose, eye and throat irritation). No significant difference in response was found between workers exposed to different types of sodium borate dusts. No effect on pulmonary function or other health effects was observed in workers exposed chronically to borates(Wegman et al., 1994).
Three per cent boric acid incorporated in an anhydrous, water-emulsifying ointment causes no increase of boron levels in blood and urine during a period of 1-9 days after a single topical application. The same amount of boric acid incorporated in a water-based jelly does cause an increase in blood and urine levels, beginning within 2-6 h after application. The decisive factor is the degree of liberation of boron from the vehicle. Skin conditions, such as erythema, eczema, or psoriasis are of minor importance to boron skin permeability, as compared to the characteristics of the vehicle. Blood levels and urine excretion of boron depend on the daily uptake of boron through food (Stuttgen et al., 1982).
In vivo results show that percutaneous absorption of boron, as boric acid, borax, and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, through intact human skin, is low and is significantly less than the average daily dietary intake. This very low boron skin absorption makes it apparent that, for the borates tested, the use of gloves to prevent systemic uptake is unnecessary. These findings do not apply to abraded or otherwise damaged skin (Wester et al., 1998).
Risk assessments of boronindicateno significant risk of toxicity to humans at currently estimated dietary or drinking water levels of exposure, based in part upon the results of the present study (ECETOC, 1995).
Boric acid and sodium borates have low acute toxicity. They are not skin irritants, nor skin sensitisers.Some borates cause eye irritancy in animals, but in 50 years of occupational exposure no adverse ocular effects have been seen in humans. Borates are absorbed orally and by inhalation. They are very poorly absorbed dermally except through severely damaged skin. They are not carcinogenic or mutagenic(HERA, 2005).
The people of Hisarcik eat locally grown food and use the ground water for drinking or food preparation. For that reason, they can be exposed to chronic boron intake through both food and water, and therefore this region is very suitable for epidemiological researches abour boron exposure. This characteristic is verified with the high boron levels in the water and high total urinary boron excretion. The first results of study show there areno remarkable findings of toxicity (Çöl & Çöl, 2003).