Gallbladder Disorders and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - A Clinic-Based Study
PG Raman*, A Patel**, V Mathew**
*Professor and Head, **Resident Medical Officers, Department of Medicine, MGM Medical College and MY Hospital, Indore.
Received : 19.3.2001; Revised : 21.6.2001; Accepted : 20.10.2001
Aims of the Study : To study the prevalence of gallbladder disorders in type 2 diabetic patients and their correlation with patient factors like age, sex, weight, duration of diabetes and autonomic neuropathy.
Methodology : Fifty type 2 diabetic patients and 30 healthy controls underwent realtime ultrasonography to study the prevalence of gallbladder disorders. The fasting gallbladder volume and contraction 60 minutes after a fatty meal of the diabetic subjects were compared with 30 age and sex matched healthy volunteers.
The age, sex, weight, duration of diabetes, autonomic neuropathy, control of diabetes were correlated to the prevalence of gallbladder disorders in diabetic patients.
Results : 32% of the diabetic patients had ultrasonographic evidence of gallstones, as compared to 6.7% in healthy subjects. 73.7% of the diabetic patients with gallbladder disorders were females.
Mean fasting gallbladder volume was significantly increased in diabetic patients (26.2 cm3) as compared to non-diabetic healthy subjects (15.8 cm3). Further mean fasting gallbladder volume of diabetic patients with gallbladder disorder (28.1 cm3) was found to be significantly larger than that of those patients without gallbladder disorder (24.6 cm3). Mean percentage of contractions of gallbladder 60 min after fatty meal was reduced in diabetic patients (53.1%) and it was observed to be further reduced in the patients with gallbladder disorder (41.8%). Mean fasting gallbladder volume was larger in diabetic subjects with autonomic neuropathy, than those without. However, difference in mean percentage contraction of gallbladder 60 min after fatty meal was not statistically significant.
Mean duration of diabetes was significantly longer in diabetic patients with gallbladder disorder.
Conclusions : We conclude that type 2 diabetic patients have increased prevalence of gallbladder disorder which can only partially be explained by autonomic neuropathy leading to increased fasting volume. Factors like decreased cholecystokinin or decreased sensitivity of the smooth muscle of gallbladder to normal level of cholecystokinin need to be studied. (J Assoc Physicians India 2002;50:887-890)