I had the same questions you do but was unable to get a real answer from anyone other than they work.. I also found out there are forces trying to outlaw and discourage zapper use and that told me right there that if the established medical witch doctors are attempting to get this thing removed there must be a solid reason so it was for that reason I ordered a cheap zapper. It was 115 dollars and for that I will give it a try. It should arrive mid week next week and I will give you a break down on it once I have tried it. Anything the established medical asses try to get banned is for me and must be good. I ordered the terminator because at least they had some info on you tube and its a big seller. The human body is an electrical organism and electricity is the life force that can heal us.