You can try it. I don't think it will be as effective but no harm in experimenting.
It's definitely not JUST caffeine that makes the coffee enemas work.
The main effects you want from the coffee enemas are tangible improvements in liver/gallbladder function, expelling stones or sludge some time after doing them and some sort of cleansing of the descending and sigmoid colon (plaque, worms, ropeworm, etc). If none of these things happen then the enemas are a waste of time.
Like Liver Flushes they need to be done over a long period of time. Unlike Liver Flushes you can do 2-3 per day so long as you keep your electrolytes topped up. When I was gung ho I would do 4 sometimes. The first one or two did not do much but agitate me, but the 3rd or 4th would start to expel the big worms and that's when you get big health dividends.
Most of the non-coffee herbal enemas have a reasoning behind them. Like the Kalcker protocol is designed to kill monster worms residing in the sigmoid area. Strong coffee is as effective as any of the essential oils in the Kalcker protocol, and it has the benefit of increasing glutathione production in the liver and expelling old bile.
There are some people with severe adrenal fatigue who posted that when they powered through the coffee enemas they greatly improved. So the whole idea that caffeine is too damaging does not hold water with me, and this is not to shrug off your personal experiences, but there must have been a reason coffee enemas were in the Merck manual as a veritable cure-all prior to Rockefeller takeover.