Ideally the report should give a chemical analysis of the stones. It is extremely difficult to find a lab that will do that. I believe that most pathologists have seen thousands of samples of liver and gallstones, and like many of us, can tell by gross visual inspection, feel, and odor. So they report "gallstones" based on gross examination. Since I made the public offer to pay for analyses, no one has taken me up on it, and no one has been able to refer me to a lab that does chemical analyses! We really need a large sample of participants. One alternative possibility is a well-known university pathology department. I am connected with one. But this will never be settled in the medical community until we publish the results of a large sample of participants, and it is a real shame that people have not risen to the occasion.