Yes, a growing body of evidence does indicate that a rapid rise in insulin can contribute to many problems. However, low glycemic foods do NOT cause a rapid rise in insulin in anyone. That is what glycemic index specifically measures. There are many factors that determine GI. Processing is but one. Some starches become gelatinous upon digestion. Even though they have a high fiber content, they still have a high GI. Surprisingly Sugar and pasta have moderate to low GI's while brown rice has a high GI. GI is the most important factor in considering a carbohydrates impact on blood Sugar and insulin. Therefor, often people are more restricitve on their diet then they need to be. As far as combining carbs and protein. Both contain enzymes that help the other digest. The more likely culprit in people indigestion are additives and preservatives (I personally eat only organic) as well as anything that might be added to the meal (For instance, consuming liquids with a meal dilutes stomach acid and causes indigestion-I know from personal experience that eliminating liquid intake 20 minutes before and after a meal has helped my digestion considerably). Sauces, salt, and other "sides" might be a factor as well. There might be food allergies as well (such as gluten). Consuming some fat with carbs also helps blunt the glucose effect, lowering the glymeic index of the meal. But, I will acknowledge that there is a wide range of tolerances among individuals. Studies are designed to test the "average" person. Statistical anomalies are usually thrown out of the calculations. (Not with the GI studies though). Anyway, I hope I added something to the dialog.